Appendix 1

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Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Diagnoses (SCID)

The SCID (First et al., 1996) is a semi-structured clinical interview, which permits categorisation into DSM-IV diagnoses. The instrument covers the major areas of psychopathology: Mood Disorders, Anxiety Disorder, Substance Use Disorders, Psychotic Symptoms, Somatoform Disorder and Eating Disorders. In this study, a computer-administered screening version of the SCID [Referred to as the SSPQ-X or SCID Screening Patient Questionnaire Extended Program for Windows (First, Gibbon, Williams & Spitzer, 1999)] was used. The schedule contains 497 questions, although fewer questions are usually administered, as there is an automatic branching program that skips questions if a patient reports not having certain symptoms. The length of time taken to complete the schedule varies from 20-40 minutes. The SSPQ-X was administered to the participants using a Laptop Computer. Questions were read aloud to the respondent as they appeared on-screen and the answers entered by the interviewer simultaneously onto the computer. Training for the SCID was provided by a psychiatrist (M.F.) who also monitored the interviews and the completed schedules. The programme provides three report options: complete summary of patient responses, concise summary of possible diagnoses, and long summary of diagnoses. When the computer analysis was completed, the computer-generated diagnoses were checked by M.F. and another psychiatrist familiar with the instrument. The final diagnosis was based on their assessment plus the computer-generated results.

Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSSI)

The BSSI (Beck & Steer, 1991) is a 21-item instrument that is used to detect and measure the severity of suicidal ideation in adults and adolescents. Each item consists of three statements scaled from 0 to 2 points, reflecting increasing gradations of the severity of suicide ideation. The first 19 items measure various facets of suicide ideation: the wish to live, the wish to die, reasons for living or dying, frequency and duration of suicidal ideation, and active suicidal behaviour. The first five items act as a screening instrument, and only those respondents who have contemplated suicide attempts are administered the remaining questionnaire. The severity of suicidal ideation is calculated by summing the ratings for the various items. The total BSSI score can range from 0 to 38 points.

Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale

This is a ten-item scale developed to provide a uni-dimensional measure of global self-regard, or self-esteem (Rosenberg, 1965). Responses to the items are reported along a four-point scale, ranging from strongly agree, agree, disagree, to strongly disagree. Responses can be scored using a simple summing scale or as an agree/disagree dichotomy. Test-retest reliabilities have been reported to range from 0.85 (Silber & Tippett, 1965) to 0.92 (Rosenberg, 1965), while internal consistency coefficients ranging from 0.72 (Rosenberg, 1965) to 0.74 (Ward 1977) have been reported.

Arizona Social Support Interview Schedule (ASSIS)

The Arizona Social Support Interview Schedule (Barrera, 1980) was developed to measure available and utilised network size, and also satisfaction with, and need for, support. Six aspects of support are included: private feelings, material aid, advice, positive feedback, physical assistance, and social participation. For each of the support functions, respondents are asked to name those individuals who are perceived as being available to provide each of the support functions (perceived network size) as well as those who have actually provided support. Satisfaction for each type of support is rated on a 7 - point scale and need is rated on a 5-point scale. Negative interaction (conflict network) is also measured in that interviewees are asked to name individuals who make them angry or upset. The instrument has been tested for reliability and results have revealed moderately satisfactory to good reliability (Bowling, 1991). Test-retest reliabilities range from 0.88 over three days to 0.70 over a period of one month (Barrera, 1980; Valdenegro & Barrera, 1983). Internal consistency reliabilities for support satisfaction and support need are lower: from 0.33 to 0.52.

Locus of Control

Locus of control was measured using a 7-item scale developed by Pearlin et al. (1981). A score of 0, the lowest score possible, indicates that the person feels they have no control over what happens in their life (an external locus of control). Conversely, a maximum score of 21 indicates that the person feels in full control of events in their life (an internal locus of control).


Note re Authorship
Executive Summary
Chapter 1: Introduction
Chapter 2: Methodology
Chapter 3: Risk and Protection for children
Chapter 4: Social and Psychological development
Chapter 5: Health and Behaviour in Childhoods
Chapter 6: Educational Attainment
Chapter 7: Discussion and Conclusions
Appendix 1

- Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Diagnoses (SCID)
- Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSSI)
- Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale
- Arizona Social Support Interview Schedule (ASSIS)
- Locus of Control

Appendix 2

- Frequency of SCID Diagnostic Categories

Last modified:04/05/2010

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